Disability Rights Fund Requests Funding Proposals from Bangladesh, Pacific Island Countries, Ghana, Uganda, Nicaragua, and Peru

Posted on 7 July 2011. Filed under: Announcements, Call for Nominations or Applications, East Asia Pacific Region, Human Rights, Latin America & Caribbean, Opportunities, South Asian Region, Sub-Saharan Africa Region | Tags: , , , , , , |

Disability Rights Fund Releases Second 2011 Request for Proposals:
Addressing Bangladesh, Pacific Island Countries, Ghana, Uganda, Nicaragua and Peru

July 7, 2011
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

BOSTON, MA – The Disability Rights Fund (DRF)—a grantmaking collaborative between donors and the global disability community which supports the human rights of persons with disabilities—today announced its second 2011 grants round, “Securing Our Rights.” Grantmaking in this round will be targeted to disabled persons’ organizations (DPOs) in Bangladesh, 14 Pacific Island countries, Ghana, Uganda, Nicaragua and Peru.

The broad objective of the Fund—which was officially launched in March 2008 and is a Project of Tides—is to empower DPOs in the developing world and Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union to participate in ratification, implementation and monitoring of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD).

In the second round of 2011 grantmaking, applicant organizations from 14 Pacific Island countries (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu), Ghana, and Nicaragua may apply as single organizations or partnerships for 12-month Small Grants. Organizations from Bangladesh, Peru and Uganda may apply by invitation only. Grants will range from USD 5,000 to 20,000 and will support efforts to build CRPD skills and to develop rights-based advocacy and monitoring on the CRPD.

Interested organizations are urged to review the full eligibility criteria and application details posted at the Fund’s website, http://www.disabilityrightsfund.org/grantmaking. Any questions on the proposal process should be directed to info@disabilityrightsfund.org. The deadline for applications is August 18, 2011.

In 2010, the Fund made 99 grants to organizations in 15 countries (India, Indonesia, Mexico, Ukraine; Nicaragua, Peru; Ghana, Uganda; Bangladesh; and Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu), totaling USD 2,222,123. Grants ranged from USD 5000 – 100,000 and supported CRPD skills-building, local rights advocacy, and national-level CRPD promotion, implementation and monitoring by DPO-led coalitions.

DRF’s donors include the American Jewish World Service, the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), the Open Society Institute, The Sigrid Rausing Trust, and the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID).
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COMUNICADO DE PRENSA

Fondo por los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad publica convocatoria a presentar propuestas de proyectos: S
egunda ronda de financiamiento de 2011 dirigida a Bangladés, Ghana, Nicaragua, países insulares del Pacífico, Perú y Uganda

7 de julio de 2011
PARA DIFUSIÓN INMEDIATA

BOSTON, MA – El Fondo por los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (DRF)—una iniciativa de colaboración financiera entre donantes y la comunidad mundial de personas con discapacidad que apoya los derechos humanos de estas personas—anunció hoy su segunda ronda de financiamiento de 2011, “Asegurando nuestros derechos”. Los subsidios en esta ronda apoyarán a organizaciones de personas con discapacidad (OPD) en Bangladés, Ghana, Nicaragua, 14 países insulares del Pacífico, Perú y Uganda.

El DRF—que fue iniciado oficialmente en marzo de 2008 y es un proyecto de la Fundación Tides—tiene el objetivo amplio de fortalecer a las OPD del mundo en desarrollo y de Europa Oriental / antigua Unión Soviética a fin de que participen en la ratificación, aplicación y seguimiento de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (CDPD).

En la segunda ronda de financiamiento de 2011, organizaciones de Ghana, Nicaragua y 14 países insulares del Pacífico (Estados Federados de Micronesia, Fiyi, Islas Cook, Islas Salomón, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Palaos, Papúa Nueva Guinea, República de las Islas Marshall, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu y Vanuatu) pueden solicitar pequeños subsidios para un periodo de 12 meses como OPD que trabajan independientemente o en alianza con otras organizaciones. OPD de Bangladés, Perú y Uganda podrán solicitar fondos únicamente por invitación. Los subsidios oscilarán entre USD 5,000 y 20,000. Apoyarán esfuerzos dirigidos a fortalecer las habilidades de las OPD para abordar la CDPD, así como a desarrollar promoción, defensa y seguimiento de los derechos enunciados en la CDPD.

Se recomienda a las organizaciones interesadas leer todos los criterios de elegibilidad y detalles para solicitud de fondos que se encuentran en esta página del DRF: http://www.disabilityrightsfund.org/es/otorgamiento. Cualquier pregunta relacionada con el proceso de las propuestas debe dirigirse a info@disabilityrightsfund.org. La fecha límite para enviar propuestas es el 18 de agosto de 2011.

En 2010, el DRF otorgó 99 subsidios por un total de USD 2.222,123 a organizaciones en 15 países (Bangladés, Estados Federados de Micronesia, Fiyi, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Islas Salomón, México, Nicaragua, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Perú, Tuvalu, Ucrania, Uganda y Vanuatu). Los subsidios, que oscilaron entre USD 5,000 y 100,000, se destinaron al desarrollo de habilidades de las OPD para abordar la CDPD y defender los derechos de las personas con discapacidad a nivel local; también fueron otorgados a coaliciones lideradas por OPD para la promoción, aplicación y seguimiento de la CDPD a nivel nacional.

El DRF cuenta con el apoyo de la Agencia Australiana para el Desarrollo Internacional (AusAID), el Departamento para el Desarrollo Internacional (DFID) del Reino Unido, el Fondo Sigrid Rausing, Fundaciones para una Sociedad Abierta y el Servicio Mundial Judío Americano (AJWS), entre otros.

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FUNDING OPPORTUNITY for Human Rights Projects by Disabled People Organizations (DPOs)

Posted on 15 July 2009. Filed under: Announcements, East Asia Pacific Region, Funding, Human Rights, Latin America & Caribbean, Opportunities, South Asian Region, Sub-Saharan Africa Region | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Disability Rights Fund Releases Second 2009 Request for Proposals, Extending Another Year of Grantmaking to Existing Target Countries and Opening Grantmaking to the Pacific
July 15, 2009
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

BOSTON, MA – The Disability Rights Fund (DRF)—a groundbreaking grantmaking collaborative supporting the human rights of people with disabilities—today announced the second round of its 2009 grantmaking, “Raising Our Voice.” The application deadline is September 15, 2009. This round opens another year of possible funding to disabled persons’ organizations (DPOs) in: Ecuador, Nicaragua, Peru; Ghana, Namibia, Uganda; and Bangladesh and adds an additional region to the Fund’s reach – the Pacific. In the Pacific, 14 island countries are targeted: Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

The broad objective of the Fund[1]—which was officially launched in March 2008—is to empower DPOs in the developing world and Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union to participate in ratification, implementation and monitoring of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CPRD).

In 2008, the Fund made one-year grants to 33 organizations in 7 countries (Ecuador, Nicaragua, Peru; Ghana, Namibia, Uganda; Bangladesh), totaling USD 800,000. Grants ranged from USD 5000 – 50,000 and supported CRPD awareness-raising, strengthening coalitions and networks, and rights advocacy.

In the second round of 2009 grantmaking, applicant organizations may apply within one of two categories: a) single organizations or partnerships and b) national DPO coalitions. Grants to single organizations will range from USD 5,000 to 30,000 and support efforts to build voice and visibility and to develop rights-based advocacy and monitoring on the CRPD. Grants to national DPO coalitions will range from USD 30,000 to 70,000 and will support advocacy toward ratification of the CRPD, passage of specific legislation to accord with the CRPD, or the production of shadow reports.

Interested organizations are urged to review the full eligibility criteria and application details posted at the Fund’s website, http://www.disabilityrightsfund.org/grant.html. Any questions on the proposal process should be directed to info@disabilityrightsfund.org by August 15. The deadline for applications is September 15, 2009.
DRF’s donors include the Aepoch Fund, the American Jewish World Service, an anonymous founding donor, the Australian Government’s International Development Assistance Agency – AusAID, the Open Society Institute, The Sigrid Rausing Trust, and the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development.

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[1] The Disability Rights Fund is a project of Tides.



Thank you to Diana Samarasan for submitting this announcement to We Can Do.

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NEWS: Deaf Empowerment Program in Ghana, Uganda Launches

Posted on 29 May 2009. Filed under: Deaf, Education, Employment, Interpreting, signed languages, Sub-Saharan Africa Region | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

First posted in November 2008 at http://www.uclan.ac.uk/ahss/research/islands/sign_language.php

£58,000 for deaf empowerment in Africa

The iSLanDS Centre has received a grant from the Education Partnership Africa programme for capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa.

The project “Training and employability for the deaf communities in Ghana and Uganda” is a joint initiative with the University of Ghana, Kyambogo University in Uganda, and deaf organisations in both countries, and aims at capacity building in the areas of applied sign language studies.

Course and curriculum development includes a sign language interpreter training course at the University of Ghana, a 2-year diploma course for deaf students in Applied Sign Language Studies in Uganda, and summer courses in academic skills development for deaf students. All of these are first-time initiatives, and are realised in close partnership with local deaf organisations.

We expect this project to impact positively on literacy, employability, and access to work for talented deaf participants in these programmes.

For further details, contact the project leader Ulrike Zeshan at uzeshan@uclan.ac.uk, or Sam Lutalo-Kiingi at slutalo-kiingi@uclan.ac.uk



I learned of this program via the Deaf Studies Africa mailing list. All inquiries should please go to either of the project leaders (see email addresses above), NOT to We Can Do. Thank you.

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NEWS: Disability Rights Fund Makes Grants to 33 Organizations in 7 Countries

Posted on 10 November 2008. Filed under: Announcements, Cross-Disability, Funding, Human Rights, Latin America & Caribbean, News, South Asian Region, Sub-Saharan Africa Region | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

PRESS RELEASE
Disability Rights Fund Makes Grants to 33 Organizations in 7 Countries

November 3, 2008
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

BOSTON, MA – The Disability Rights Fund (DRF) – a groundbreaking collaborative to support the human rights of people with disabilities around the world– today announced funding decisions from its first request for proposals. A total of $800,000 will be gifted to 33 organizations in seven countries. The grants will support work to raise awareness about the rights of people with disabilities, build coalitions and networks, and develop advocacy and monitoring activities, in connection with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

DRF grantees share the goal of advancing the rights of people with disabilities at the country-level. Recipients include:
• A Ugandan organization of lawyers with disabilities.
• An emergent Peruvian group of people with psycho-social disabilities.
• A grassroots network in Bangladesh of women-led disabled persons’ organizations.
The full grantee list is posted on the DRF website, www.disabilityrightsfund.org/grantees.html and is available upon request.

“As the disability rights movement gains new impetus through the UN Convention we are delighted to play our part by placing new funding in the hands of DPOs to enable them to advance rights at country level,” stated DRF Co-Chair, William Rowland. DRF Director, Diana Samarasan, added “It is an auspicious day to put money in the hands of organizations run by people with disabilities. The first Conference of States Parties to the Convention is being held at the UN; the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is being elected. The work of translating the Convention from paper to practice is before us.”

Grantees were selected after a rigorous review process which included review by DRF’s Steering Committee, a committee composed of donor representatives and people with disabilities from the Global South.

DRF’s donors include: an anonymous founding donor, The Sigrid Rausing Trust, the Open Society Institute, the UK’s Department for International Development, and the American Jewish World Service.

A grantee list can be requested from DRF by writing to dsamarasan@disabilityrightsfund.org. Or you can consult the Grantee web page at the Disability Rights Fund website.

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As an addendum from this We Can Do editor, I would like to encourage readers to consult the Disability Rights Fund website to learn about upcoming funding opportunities from their organization for projects to promote the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Readers may also wish to consult their extensive resource listings to find resources that can help them learn how to raise funds, find funding sources, and use the CRPD to promote the human rights of people with disabilities in their country.



Thank you to Diana Samarasan for circulating this press release.

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Disability Rights Fund Opens Grantmaking to DPOs in 7 Countries

Posted on 16 June 2008. Filed under: Announcements, Cross-Disability, Funding, Human Rights, Latin America & Caribbean, News, Opportunities, South Asian Region, Sub-Saharan Africa Region, Uncategorized | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

En español

PRESS RELEASE
Disability Rights Fund Opens Grantmaking to DPOs in 7 Countries

JUNE 16, 2008

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

BOSTON, MA – The Disability Rights Fund—a groundbreaking grantmaking collaborative supporting the human rights of people with disabilities—today announced its first grants competition.

The broad objective of the Fund — which was launched by the Open Society Institute, The Sigrid Rausing Trust, the United Kingdom Department for International Development, and an anonymous donor on the first anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) — is to empower disabled persons organizations in the developing world and Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union to effectively implement and monitor the CPRD.

In 2008, the Fund plans to give out a total of USD $700,000 in one-year grants ranging from USD $5000 – $50,000 and aimed at awareness-raising, strengthening coalitions and networks, and rights advocacy.

To be eligible for this year’s grants program, applicant organizations must be based in and conduct the majority of their activities in the following seven countries: in Africa, Ghana, Namibia and Uganda; in Latin America, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Peru; in Asia, Bangladesh. In these countries, the Fund will support Disabled Persons’ Organizations activities that advance the human rights of persons with disabilities at country-level.

Interested organizations are urged to review the full eligibility criteria and application details posted at the Fund’s website, www.disabilityrightsfund.org. Any questions on the proposal process should be directed to info@disabilityrightsfund.org by July 15. The deadline for applications is August 15.

Disability Rights Fund Steering Committee Co-Chair, William Rowland, President of the World Blind Union, stated “The Disability Rights Fund heralds an innovative partnership between donors and persons with disabilities. The flow of new resources to support our struggle for rights is a development of major significance.”

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COMUNICADO DE PRENSA
El Fondo Sobre Derechos de Personas con Discapacidad abre su período de subvenciones a OPDs en 7 Países

16 de junio de 2008

PARA SU INMEDIATA PUBLICACIÓN

BOSTON, MA – El Fondo Sobre Derechos de Personas con Discapacidad, una iniciativa colaborativa que apoya los derechos humanos de las personas con discapacidad – anunció hoy su primera competición por subvenciones.

El objetivo amplio del Fondo – que fue lanzado por el Open Society Institute, el Sigrid Rausing Trust, el Departamento para el Desarrollo Internacional del gobierno británico, y un donante anónimo, en el primer aniversario de la Convención Sobre los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad (CDPD) de las Naciones Unidas – es el de empoderar a organizaciones de personas con discapacidad en el mundo en desarrollo y la Europa del Este/antigua Unión Soviética, para la implementación y monitoreo efectivos de la CDPD.

En el 2008, el Fondo tiene planificado otorgar un total de USD $700,000 (dólares estadounidenses) en subvenciones de un año de duración que varían desde los USD $5,000 hasta $50,000, dirigidos al aumento de la concientización, el fortalecimiento de alianzas y redes, y la defensa de derechos.

Para poder optar al programa de subvenciones de este año, las organizaciones aplicantes deben tener su sede y realizar la mayoría de sus actividades en alguno de los siguientes siete países: en África, Ghana, Namibia y Uganda; en América Latina, Ecuador, Nicaragua y Perú; en Asia, Bangladesh. En estos países, el Fondo apoyará actividades de las organizaciones de personas con discapacidad que contribuyan al avance de la CDPD a nivel de los países.

Se alienta a que las organizaciones interesadas revisen los criterios de eligibilidad y los detalles para aplicar que se encuentran en el sitio de Internet del Fondo: www.disabilityrightsfund.org. Cualquier pregunta acerca del proceso para realizar propuestas deberán dirigirse a: info@disabilityrightsfund.org a más tardar el 15 de julio de 2008. La última fecha para enviar aplicaciones es el 15 de agosto de 2008.

William Rowland, Co-Presidente del Comité Coordinador del Fondo Sobre Derechos de Personas con Discapacidad, quien también funge como Presidente de la Unión Mundial de Ciegos, declaró “El Fondo Sobre Derechos de Personas con Discapacidad ha constituído una asociación innovadora entre donantes y personas con discapacidad. La canalización de nuevos recursos hacia la lucha por reivindicar nuestros derechos, es un desarrollo de importancia significativa.”



Thank you to Diana Samarasan for submitting this press release for publication at We Can Do.

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PAPER: Equalizing Educational Opportunity for the Nigerian-Ghanaian Blind Girl-Child

Posted on 11 November 2007. Filed under: Academic Papers and Research, Blind, Children, Education, Guest Blogger, Sub-Saharan Africa Region | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , |

Equalizing Educational Opportunities for the Nigerian-Ghanaian Blind Girl-Child

Florence Banku Obi
Senior Lecturer
Institute of Education
University of Calabar
NIGERIA

[Editorial Note: Please note that the original version of this paper contained tables. We Can Do has converted them to text. Any flaws in this conversion are entirely my own and are not the fault of the author of this paper.]

Introduction
Education is recognised a major instrument of change and development. In recognising this, the Federal Republic of Nigeria Policy on Education aptly adopted education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. Education according to the United Nations Children Fund (Unicef) is a fundamental human right and the key factor to reducing poverty and child labour as well as promoting sustainable development. It is in the light of this that Nigeria and Ghana have well documented policies on the education of children with special needs. However, despite these policies discrimination still pervades in these societies.

In Africa women generally lack access to education. Girls’ access to education is influenced by traditional considerations and attitudes which make them underrepresented. Girls are usually the first to be pulled out of school when the family suffers some financial lose or constrains. The picture is gloomier when the girl is blind. Girls who are blind in Africa are still to reap the benefit of the fight against gender discrimination which gained popularity in Africa after the Beijing Conference in 1998. They more than their sighted counterpart suffer lots of discrimination especially in the two countries. According to Rannveig Traustadottir as quoted by Bowe (1984) women with disabilities are likely to have received less education than both non-disabled women and men with disabilities. Women with disabilities are five times as likely as women without disabilities to have less than eight years of formal education; 17.4 percent of all women with disabilities have less than eight years of formal education as compared to 3.5 percent of non-disabled women. Only 16 percent of all women with disabilities are likely to have any college education compared to 31 percent of non-disabled women and 28 percent of men with disabilities (Bowe, 1984).

Accordingly, boys who are blind are more likely to have more and better educational opportunities than girls. Bowe (1984) writing on the educational opportunities open to children with disabilities states that boys are likely to be perceived and identified for special education than girls. While disabled boys count for 51% of all students in elementary and secondary schools and up to 75% of students in special education classes (Russo & Jansen, 1988). in developed countries, they are said to count for less than 10% of the total school age children in Nigeria. Although this figure seems low compared to the non-disabled children there are relatively higher when compared to disabled girls who are in schools. Reasons advanced for why boys are more readily identified as needing special education include their disruptive behaviours which made parents to view them and their education as a priority to enable them develop the skills to be able to support themselves and a family later on.

The history of education for the blind in Nigeria and Ghana

Nigeria
Children who are blind did not start to enjoy formal education until the early 1950s. The first school for the blind in Nigeria was established in 1953 at Gindiri in Plateau State by the Sudan United Mission (SUM). The school is now being run by Church of Christ in Nigeria (COCIN).This was followed up with the establishment of Pacelli School for the Blind at Lagos in 1962 by the Catholic Church and supported by the Federal Government. Oji River Rehabilitation Centre (now Oji River Special Education Centre) in Enugu State was the next in the line. Today there are a number of schools for the blind across the country. Among them include; St Joseph School for the blind, Obudu in Cross River State established in 1972 and supported by the Christoffel Blinden Mission (CBM), Ondo State school for the Blind Owo, School for the handicapped (blind unit) Sokoto, School for the blind Umuahia in Abia State, School for the blind, Zuba, Abuja among others (Olukotun, 2003; Skyes and Ozoji, 1992). Interestingly, the functional schools for the blind still have the missionaries as their proprietors.

Ghana
In Ghana, education of children who are blind was initiated by the missionaries and philanthropists (Special Education Division, (SED) 2004). The early attempt according to the SED was made in 1936, when two blind children were taught Braille reading and writing. The success of this experiment led to the establishment of a school for the blind at Akropong-Akuapem in the Eastern Region of the country by the Basel Mission in 1946 (SED, 2004). This became the first school for the blind in West Africa. In 1958, the Methodist Church established the second school for the blind at Wa in the Upper West Region. These two schools till date remain the basic schools for blind children in the country although some children who are blind are also integrated in seven mainstreamed schools across the country.

Equal Educational Opportunities for all Children
The basic reasons for the establishment of schools for the blind across the two countries are to provide educational opportunities to the children who are blind and integrate them into their societies. This was to prepare them to be functional citizens who will be able to contribute to the development of their nations and their families and to help them live as near a normal live as possible. These objectives are in line with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1949, the United Nations General Assembly Charter of 1959, and the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child of 1989 which saw education as a human right issue (Unicef, 2004). Based on these Rights and Conventions all children including those who are blind are to access education by the year 2015. To make this realistic, Unicef (2004) in the Millennium Development Goals resolve to

“eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieve gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality; expand and improve comprehensive early childhood care and education for girls and boys especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children; promote innovative programmes that encourage schools and communities to search actively for children who have dropped out of schools especially girls ……children with special needs and children with disabilities and help them enrol, attend and successfully complete their education……and ensure that basic education programmes are accessible, inclusive and responsive to children with special learning needs and for children with various forms of disabilities”
p. 34 & 35.

It must be stated that in developing the Millennium Development Goals, cognizance was taken of the fact that all children (blind and sighted) are born free and equal in dignity and rights; therefore all forms of discrimination affecting them need be stopped.

Research Questions
The study seeks to answer two research questions.
• Is there gender equity in the educational opportunities for children who are blind in Nigeria and Ghana?
• Are girls who are blind negatively affected in the provisions of educational opportunities than boys who are blind?

Subjects and Method
The study involves only blind children in Nigeria and Ghana. The two schools for the blind in Ghana were involved in addition to all schools mainstreaming the blind. In Nigeria, three schools were used for the study. This was to make for easy data collection due to the size and population of the country. The three schools were visited and data collected from the heads of the schools. The schools used were, St Joseph School for the Blind, Obudu in Cross River State; Gindiri School for the Blind, Plateau State and Oji River Special Education Centre Enugu State. These schools happened also to be among the earliest Blind Schools in the country and were all established by the missionaries.

Results

Nigeria

Table 1: Population of Blind Children in three selected schools in Nigeria

Gindiri School for the Blind:
2003/2004: 49 boys; 20 girls
2004/2005: 58 boys; 29 girls
2005/2006: 54 boys; 27 girls
TOTAL: 161 boys; 76 girls

St. Joseph Obudu
2003/2004: 26 boys; 17 girls
2004/2005: 25 boys; 12 girls
2005/2006: 21 boys; 18 girls
TOTAL: 72 boys; 57 girls

Oji River Centre
2003/2004: 32 boys; 28 girls
2004/2005: 28 boys; 23 girls
2005/2006: 35 boys; 27 girls
TOTAL: 95 boys; 78 girls

Table 1 show that for the three years under study, 161 boys representing 67.9% and 76 girls representing 32.1% in Gindiri School for the Blind had access to school. The school records also showed a yearly breakdown of new intakes in primary one in the 2003/2004, academic session to be 9 boys and 8 females; the 2004/2005 had 8 boys and 4 girls while 8 boys and 3 girls were admitted in the 2005/2006 session.

St Joseph’s School for the Visually Impaired results also show that for the three years under study 72 blind boys as against 57 blind girls had access to school representing 55.8% and 44.2% respectively. The population of Oji River Centre shows that more boys are equally having access to education than girls.

Ghana

Table 2: Population of Blind Children in Special Schools in Ghana

School for the blind-Akropong
2003/2004: 162 boys; 111 girls
2004/2005: 164 boys; 101 girls
2005/2006: 175 boys; 104 girls
TOTAL: 501 boys; 316 girls

Wa School for the Blind
2003/2004: 114 boys; 67 girls
2004/2005: 108 boys; 65 girls
2005/2006: 116 boys; 69 girls
TOTAL: 338 boys; 201 girls

The above table shows that 501 boys and 316 girls representing 61% and 39% respectively have access to education in the last three years under study in the School for the Blind, Akropong. Data from Wa School for the Blind reveals that 338 boys representing 63% and 201 girls representing 37% have had access to education in Special settings since 2003/2004 academic session. These figures show that more boys have access to education than girls in the country. In the three years under study, 839 and 517 blind boys and girls were in schools respectively. The figures also revealed that girls are more disadvantaged than boys and that there is no gender equity in the provisional of educational services to blind children in Ghana.

Table 3: Population of blind children mainstreamed in the
2003/2004 academic year
Institution Students Enrolment
Male Female Total

Three Kings-Blind Unit: 10 males; 5 females; 15 total
Wa Secondary School: 4 males; 2 females; 6 total
Presbyterian Training College: 9 males; 6 females; 15 total
Bechem Blind-Unit: 4 males; 2 females; 6 total
Wenchi Seondary School: 14 males; 8 females; 22 total
Cape Coast School for the Deaf-Unit: 9 males; 2 females; 11 total
Wa Training College: 5 males; 2 females; 7 total
TOTAL: 55 males; 27 females; 82 total

The result on the table shows that in the 2003/2004 academic year, 55 males and 27 females who are blind were in mainstreamed schools in Ghana. This represents 67% and 33% boys and girls respectively.

Discussion
In Nigeria, results in table 1 shows that more boys have access to education than girls. Data gathered show that 161, 72, and 95 boys who are blind had access to education in Gindiri, Obudu and Oji River respectively. For the girls 76, 57, and 78 had access to Gindiri, Obudu and Oji River respectively. Of the total number of 529 children who are blind in the study schools, 328 are boys while 201 are girls thus representing 62 and 38 percent respectively.

The result in Ghana is not different either. In tables two and three the data show that more blind boys have access to educational opportunities than the girls. The figures computed show that 839 boys and 517 girls have access to education in segregated special schools. These figures represent 61% for boys and 39% for girls. The results in table three show that they were more boys who are blind in mainstreamed regular schools than girls as at the 2003/2004 academic year. This lopsidedness goes to confirm that there is no gender equity in the provision of educational opportunities to children who are blind in Ghana.

The findings are in conformity with the general trend where girls are denied educational opportunities in favour of boys. The reasons for this inequality are not far fetched. Women are associated with some stereotyped roles that make them feel subservient to the men in the society. For instance, there is the inculcation of the beliefs in both boys and girls in their formative years that there are definite and separate roles for both sexes (Chizea & Njoku, 1991). For instance, the traditional African society believes and teach that men are the bread-winners and at such they should be full of activity including access to education while women are home makers hence they should be home bound and passive. The socio-cultural environment of the two countries is so discriminatory in terms of gender. The Nigerian report under the United Nations Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women states that women are relegated to the background and stereotyped roles of women drummed into and accepted by them from childhood (Chizea & Njoku, 1991).Abang-Wushishi (2004) pointed out that the different economies and socio-cultural factors affect sex roles and the different socialisation culture of boys and girls and their resulting personality formation. Citing Barry (1959) Abang-Wushishi states that boys were more pressured towards assertiveness, responsibility, achievement and self-reliance. The reasons for this state of affairs are the belief that women would sooner or later marry and their contribution to national development were in the areas of child-bearing, home-making and farming. Obi, (2004) states that the gender stereotyped and socialization process in Nigeria prepared women for domestic roles as housewives even with the introduction of western system of education. Western education was not considered relevant for girls but for boys. The situation is even worse when the girl in question is blind. Most parents have very poor concept of children who are blind especially the blind girl-child. These parents do not think that girls who are blind have bright opportunities in the society. Such parents will rather prefer to spend their money on the boys who have better chances of getting employment, marrying and raising a family. This is because it is not a common occurrence to see women who are blind happily married with children and having paid jobs unlike the case with most men who are blind. Davies (1996) attributed this to the fact that women in the society are still the more nurturing sex and they may be less hesitant to accept date from men who are blind that sighted men will do for girls who are blind. The fact that men find it very difficult to partner a girl who is blind affects the acceptability of such women in the society including the provision of educational services to them. Some informal interactions with some women who are blind revealed that some parents see investment in their education as a double waste of resources and energy for both the girl and the family. Many contend that their parents said they will rather use such monies to cater for their daily needs than school needs. The preference for boys has also to do with the fact that they are seen as those to continue with the family name hence much premium is placed on the birth and education of the boy child even when he is blind.

Conclusion
Education is seen in the society as the process of developing the whole being, physically, mentally, morally, politically and socially. However, despite the benefit and functions of education in the personal development of an individual and society at large cultural and social norms have been used over the years to deny women the opportunity of developing themselves and contributing to the development of their society. Women with disabilities especially the blind ones are one of the most vulnerable and marginalized groups in today’s society. We need to develop a better understanding of their lives in order to remove the obstacles that still remain in their way to equality. The constitutions of Ghana and Nigeria guarantee equal rights to citizens their handicapping condition not withstanding. The two countries educational policies equally advocate for non-discriminatory educational opportunities for all children. More importantly the United Nations in her different conventions on human rights has repeatedly emphasized the need for equal educational opportunities and access by all children irrespective of gender or disability. The governments of Ghana and Nigeria must as a matter of urgency put in place measures to ensure that the blind girl-child has unhindered access to education. Parents need to be sensitized on the need for the education of the blind girl-child. Women organizations and civil right activists should integrate the issues of education of the blind girl-child into their programmes and begin to advocate for the implementation of Nigerian and Ghanaian educational policies that emphasized on equality of educational opportunities for children. Defaulters (Heads of Schools, Parents, Guidance etc) should be prosecuted to serve as deterrents for others.

References
Abang-Wushishi, Rose (2004). Perceptions of Female Development. In Oshita O.Oshita (ed) Towards Self-Knowledge: Essays on the Boki Nation. Ibadon. Hope Publications

Bowe, F. (1984). Disabled women in America: A statistical report drawn from census data. Washington, DC: President’s Committee on Employment of the Handicapped.

Chizea, D. O and Njoku, J. (1991) Nigerian Women and the Challenges of our time. Lagos. Malthouse Press Limited.

Davies, J. (1996). Sexuality Education for Children with Visual Impairment. http://www.tsbvi.edu/Education/sexuality-education.htm

Obi, F.B. (2004). Women, Environment and Development in Boki. In Oshita O. Oshita (ed). Towards Self-Knowledge: Essays on the Boki Nation. Ibadon. Hope Publications

Olukotu, J.O. (2003). Teaching Children with Blindness and Visual Impairment: A Basic Text. Ibadon. Codat Publications.

Special Education Department (2004). Special Educational Needs Policy |Framework. Ghana Education Service.

Skyes, K.C. and Ozoji, E.D. (1992). Teaching Blind and Low Vision Children. Zaria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd.

United Nations Children Fund (Unicef) (2004). A World Fit for Children. New York.


Thank you to the author of this paper, Florence Banku Obi, for granting permission to publish it at We Can Do. This paper was previously presented at the presented at the 12th International Council for Education of People with Visual Impairments (ICEVI) World Conference held in Malaysia from 16-21 July 2006 and was also circulated on an email listserv called the “Disability Information Dissemination Network,” which is managed by the ”Centre for Services and Information on Disability”(CSID), Bangladesh and currently sponsored by Sightsavers International. Individuals who wish to join receive papers, news, and announcements like this one relevant to the concerns of people with disabilities in developing countries should send an email to csid@bdmail.net or csid@bdonline.com with the word “join” in the subject line.

For more papers like this one, click “Academic Papers and Research” under “Categories” in the right-hand navigation bar. For more items related to blind people, or children, or education, or Sub-Saharan Africa generally, please click on the appropriate categories.

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