OPINION: One Laptop per Child—But is it Inclusive?

Posted on 16 November 2007. Filed under: Children, Cross-Disability, Education, Opinion, technology | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The Issue
Bringing laptops to children in developing countries. It’s a nifty concept, meant to help with an enormous challenge: improving the quality of education in developing countries. But is it inclusive of children with disabilities?

Even relatively casual observers of the international development field quickly learn that 77 million children worldwide are not in primary school. And perhaps you also knew that a large portion of those children have disabilities. What we don’t hear about as often is that even the 2 billion children who are fortunate enough to be able to enter a classroom, in many cases, may not be that much better off. The push to put all children in school by 2015, as per the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), has led to more schools, more teachers, and more books—but not necessarily to a better-quality education. So how do we go beyond filling seats with bodies so we can start filling heads with knowledge?

The One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project thinks they have part of the answer. That’s to put a laptop into the hands of every child in school in developing nations. Not just any laptop, but the XO laptop. The XO is designed specifically for child learners. It has features that allow them to create—be it a picture, a poem, a game, or a computer program. And XO laptops can communicate directly with other XO laptops if they are close enough. That allows for collaborative projects among pairs or groups of students. The laptops are also designed to be used in rugged conditions. They can be used in places where classes might meet outside in bright sunlight, or where students may have no access to electricity.

In developing countries, one of the largest barriers to obtaining resources—be it for disabled people or for their non-disabled peers—is cost. The One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) project has tackled this, at least part way, by producing a laptop that costs $200. That’s twice as much as their original goal—which was to design a $100 laptop. And that’s still out of reach for any family that lives on less than $1 a day. But it’s within reach for some country governments. Uruguay, for example, has purchased the first 100,000 XOs to come off the assembly line (see http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7068084.stm). And there may soon be other countries standing in line. The OLPC project has also introduced several ways that people in rich countries can help (see http://www.laptopgiving.org/en/index.php). If things grow quickly from here, we could soon see the day when millions of children are learning through XO laptops and any competitors that might later emerge.

But for children with disabilities, the question of whether someone can and will send them a laptop in the first place is only the first half of the problem. The second half is whether the laptop is even accessible to them.

XO Laptops: Are They Suitable for Young Disabled Students?
I should note here that I have not yet seen an XO laptop for myself. Nor am I an expert in the types of adaptations that are available or most needed by people who are blind, or who have mobility impaired—or, indeed, any disability other than deafness. That means I can’t give an accurate evaluation of how usable an XO laptop is for disabled children. But I can speculate. And given how large the OLCP project hopes to become, I suggest that anyone with an interest in educating disabled children in developing countries should also be speculating. More importantly, they should be sharing their insights and ideas for remedies with the OLPC project.

On the plus side, some disabled children may find that the laptops will be a tremendous boon for them. For example, the XO is sturdier and more durable than most standard, western computers. That could be an important feature for children whose disabilities affect their behavior. They might be less likely to damage the laptop if they throw it during a tantrum or a “meltdown”, for example. Or a child with mobility impairments or dyspraxia can worry less if they drop their laptop.

Also, I like how the XO laptop allows for interactive communication with other laptop users. For children who have communication-related disabilities and who have learned to read and write, it might make communication with their non-disabled peers a little easier. Instead of being forced to talk or read lips in a modality that works poorly for them–if at all–they could have the option of typing back and forth with their classmates or the teacher. This could be especially helpful in situations where no sign language interpreter is available, which is frequently the case in developing countries. I don’t think the XO will ever be a substitute for more appropriate educational placements. (I believe that most deaf children should be in good quality, specialized schools for deaf children. But that’s a subject for another blog post.) But for deaf children who have been thrust into classrooms with no means of understanding their teacher, the laptop could potentially become a tool for teaching themselves, perhaps with the aid of their peers.

But even deaf children, if they are learning alongside hearing peers, may feel left out when their classmates start playing around with the built-in microphone and other auditory-based features. And other disabled children may find the XO laptops to be so inaccessible as to be useless. I suspect that blind children and some children with low vision—as with most computers generally—may suffer the most significant barriers. From what I can gather from their web site, the XO seems to have a very visual interface. That’s great for sighted deaf children, but bad for blind children. There seems to be no provision for screen readers of any kind: a blind child could still type but would have no way to monitor what they are typing or to read it back later. And unless there is some audio feature that I didn’t read about, the heavy graphics would be meaningless to them. That might make it harder for a child with vision impairments to interact with other students in the class. If I understand correctly, a child who wants to work on a project with someone else through the XO needs to bring up an icon representing their classmate and click it.

I also wonder about children with certain mobility impairments, particularly those that affect the use of their hands. As far as I can tell from the OLPC web site, there are no modified keyboards available. In other words, one design fits all—even when it doesn’t. And it’s not just the keyboard that might pose a problem. One of the ways to power up an XO is to either pull on a cord or operate a foot pump—either of which might be problematic for children with certain mobility impairments. What if a child could operate one type of battery re-charger but not the other? If a country buys all of its laptops in one variety, a child may not have the option of switching to equipment that is more usable for them.

Why Inclusion Matters–From the Beginning
Children with disabilities already face enormous barriers in even reaching the classroom. And many face even more barriers inside it. The XO laptop is meant to help bring the world of learning to poor children in developing nations. But for many children with disabilities, the XO laptop, as currently designed, may create new barriers to learning instead of removing them. What is especially worrying to me is that nowhere in their web site does OLPC even acknowledge the problem much less discuss what they’re doing to resolve it. (Or if they do and I missed it, tell me in the comments area below—their site is at www.laptop.org.)

The usual excuse made when a new project excludes disabled people, is, “But we’re new. We’re just starting. We had to start somewhere. We’re not ready for doing anything more specialized right now.” There are two major problems with accepting this type of excuse. First is the issue of justice. People with disabilities have always been the last people to gain access to any new technology or service. As soon as one technology is finally made at least partly accessible, something new has become mainstream to everyone else—but, once again, not for disabled people. By the time innovative deaf people in rich countries finally managed to invent a way to access telephones, for example, all their hearing, middle-class neighbors had color television–while deaf people were, once again, waiting. The delay between the time a new technology or service becomes available to non-disabled people and the time it becomes available to disabled people, in and of itself, creates barriers that prevent people with disabilities from participating fully in society. There will always be something new. And, even with advancing medical technology, there will probably always be disabled people. We will only be fully included in society when new things, too, are accessible to us from the first day they become available to the public at wide. After all, aren’t we, too, supposed to be members of the public?

The second problem with accepting the “but it’s new, give us time” excuse is that this is backwards thinking. It is PRECISELY BECAUSE a technology or project is new that the people designing it SHOULD be thinking from the start about the needs of people with disabilities. Suppose you construct a building with stairs and no ramps, then you tear part of it down in order to add the ramps years later, that’s expensive. If you remember the needs of people with disabilities while you’re still working in the blueprint stage then you can make sure it has ramps to begin with, and you can integrate the ramps into the design in a way that saves money. That’s very, very cheap. If you build 100,000 computers for Uruguay with no screen readers, and then belatedly construct a few separate devices to be attached to them later as needed, that’s expensive.

But what if they had given consideration to the needs of blind or dyslexic students, or children with other disabilities, from the beginning? Yes, it probably would have been an enormous challenge to find a way to integrate their needs into the standard design of the XO laptop without significantly increasing its cost. But if they had at least tried—even if they had tried and failed—then if nothing else, we could have been a good five years of research and development closer to achieving an XO that does succeed in including disabled children. And not only that, but it might have been cheaper than whatever add-on fix they come up with now. Or, even if they hadn’t come up with a concept that could be integrated into the standard design, they might at least have come up with design elements that make it easier to add on a fix later. What if they come up with a nice, cheap screen reader, only to find that there isn’t a good way to plug it into the existing XO laptops?

Or perhaps they could have come up with creative design elements that help, not only disabled students, but everyone. After all, curb cuts were implemented for wheelchair riders, but were quickly embraced by non-disabled parents with prams or baby carriages. Closed captions were invented to enable deaf people in rich countries to watch television, but have also been embraced by hearing immigrants learning the language of their new home. Speech recognition software for computers was invented, at least in part, for people who cannot type with their hands, but has been embraced by others as well. What kind of XO would we have had today if they hadn’t thrown away five years of opportunity to find out?

Owning the Issue
Two groups of people need take responsibility for ensuring that the built in exclusion of disabled children in developing countries does not last. First are the people operating the One Laptop Per Child project. If they’re serious about bringing laptops to all two billion children in school, then they would do well to remember that about 10 percent of the world’s population—including children in developing countries—have disabilities. They need to decide whether “all” will truly mean “all,” or if “all” really means “all except disabled children because they’re too difficult to include.”

The obligation doesn’t end with the One Laptop Per Child project, but it does begin with them: they need to be proactive. To start with, they should reach out to organizations of disabled adults and children in developing countries to share the laptop with them and find out exactly what problems they face in using it. They can begin with some of the organizations listed in “Finding Local Disability Organizations” for possible contacts. They should be talking with disabled adults, because people who have already been adapting to their own disabilities for a whole lifetime often see obvious solutions that elude everybody else. And they should be talking with parents and teachers who may notice barriers that even disabled users miss. But most importantly of all, they should be talking with disabled children in developing countries—because the best person to tell us what a disabled child needs is a disabled child.

Also, they should mention the problem of accessibility for children with disabilities throughout their web site, where appropriate. In particular, where they recruit volunteers, they should be specifically asking for people who can help make the laptop more usable for children with a wide range of disabilities. But even in other parts of their web site, for example where they talk about its design features and their future design plans, they can acknowledge its existing limitations and explain how they hope to overcome them. Possibly they could also have a separate page devoted to the topic of accessibility—but this is not a substitute for integration. “Add-on” issues rarely get the attention they deserve: if it’s important, then the organization’s concern for the issue should reverberate through everything they say and do.

Second are people around the world who are already committed to bringing more disabled children in developing countries into the classroom and giving them a high-quality education. That means parents, educators, disabled advocates, non-government organizations (NGOs) and other interested parties. People who have direct experience with the XO laptop can give their feedback to the One Laptop Per Child project. Others can review their web site and offer their advice or consultation services.

I think the One Laptop Per Child program is a good concept and a good cause worth supporting—even with its current flaws. That’s exactly why I urge them to become a more inclusive cause as well. I hope they listen—and take action.

Nicholas Negroponte and the other staff at OLPC: it’s over to you, now.

The facts, figures, and information behind the opinions expressed in this essay come from a range of sources. Most particularly I drew upon the OLPC web site, but you will also note that I link to a number of other sources throughout this article.

Edited 17 Nov. ’07 to add: Eduardo Silva points out (thank you for alerting me) that interested readers can go to http://wiki.laptop.org to see some of the software work that is being done to improve the XO laptop. And as Eduardo Silva indicates, they are indeed working on a text-to-voice screen reader, which you can read about at http://wiki.laptop.org/go/Screen_Reader. However, I still have some concerns about this which I elaborate upon further in the comments area below.

Edited 31 Dec. ’07 to add: I wonder if a Sightsaver’s Dolphin Pen would help blind children make better use of the XO. Is there anyone reading this who is familiar with BOTH the XO AND with the Dolphin Pen (a low-cost screen reader and screen magnifier designed for use in low-income countries)? If so, I would value your input. Please do comment in the comments area below.

Edited 5 Jan. ’08 to add: THANK YOU to the anonymous contributer in the comments area below who led me to the accessibility mailing list for people who want to brainstorm ideas and solutions on how to make the XO more accessible.

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10 Responses to “OPINION: One Laptop per Child—But is it Inclusive?”

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Check out wiki.laptop.org for a more full-view of work being done around the project. I read in a mailing list that there will be a system-wide text-to-speech service, that all of the desktop will use. It’s still very rough and not plugged in to the interface, but seems to be a good start.

Hello Andrea, I will get my husband Paul, to read this. His mission at the moment is to help the First Nations of Canada and the many children with disabilities. He’s heading up to a northern reserve in early December with a truck of donated clothes and food. I’m just imagining what laptops would mean to those children. Thanks for telling me about your blog and all the very best with your efforts.

Eduardo Silva: Thanks for alerting us. I agree that this is a good start. I still have certain concerns about this, though:

1. On the page where they discuss the screen reader, they don’t even mention students with vision impairments or reading-related disabilities as a target audience for this screen reader. This makes disabled children invisible. And that’s always a concern because when any population is “invisible” to the mainstream their needs will be overlooked as well. Will a screen reader designed for sighted children who don’t like to read, or who are still learning how, still meet the needs of a hearing blind child? Maybe it will. I’m not familiar enough either with standard screen readers or with the version they’re working on for the XO to judge. So maybe I’m worrying over nothing. But unless blind and dyslexic children are added to the list as part of their target population, and unless blind children in developing countries are specifically recruited to test the resulting software, we can’t be sure. (Ideally dyslexic children should also be recruited–but would probably be more of a challenge to find because in many countries there is little or no effort to even identify them.)

2. Of course, sound-based software still misses students who are both deaf and blind, or who are both deaf and dyslexic. These students would need some kind of Braille readout. But although part of the software needs might be similar (I know little about computers so I’m guessing here), I realize that this would have to be a separate project. Does anyone reading this know if people at the OLPC are working on this angle?

3. I would also still urge the OLPC project to mention the screen reader project on their main web site as one example of something they’re doing to make the laptop more accessible to a wider number of children.

Is anyone reading this via a screen reader? Can you help contribute to this dialogue? I’d really welcome your input. (No, there is NO CAPTCHA at this blog. The “captcha” being those nasty image things where other blogs ask you to type in the letters you can’t see in order to prove that you’re a human and not a spam robot. So unless there’s something I’m missing, there should be no barrier for blind or dyslexic people who want to add a comment. If I’m wrong, please let me know.)

I just came across a mailing list dedicated to discussing how to make the XO accessible. It’s at http://lists.laptop.org/listinfo/accessibility . I hadn’t been able to find such a list when actually looking for it, but stumbled across it by accident when searching for something else. I do wish OLPC prioritized accessibility, but the mailing list is at least a start.

I hope you see this here because, without your real email address, I had no way to contact you in person to say this:

THANK YOU, NoName. I’ve now posted about the mailing list you indicate, at:


Andrea — Thanks for your comments about the XO. I did see the following info on the XO website about recharging the batteries, mitigating some concerns about kids with mobility/dexterity impairments: “…or recharged by a directly connected solar panel.”

nice for children improving the quality of education,great

I have to add….currently, laptops are pretty much one size fits all when looking at physically/mobility (hand motion) impaired kids. I came across this site while trying to find a laptop for my nearly 16 year old with very limited range of motion in her hands and arms.

I’ve currently contacted HP, Dell, Apple, Gateway, and I can’t tell you how many other sites looking for a laptop that has a different configuration with the keyboard and mouse. They are all the same. The lower 1/3 or so of the keyboard section is devoted to a touchpad mouse, making it impossible for her to be able to reach above the second line of keys. This one is the same. *shrug* what else is new, I guess.

Sorry, I’m disheartened at the moment…I didn’t know that everything was all the same on this front and had thought I might find something different. I just wanted to find *one* thin easily that would work for my child, and yet again, it’s not going to happen

Dawn: In looking at my own XO laptop, the whole thing is smaller and more compact than most lap tops (because it is designed for the small hands of primary-school aged children). This means the mouse pad area is, correspondingly, not nearly as large as, say, the mouse pad area on my Mac iBook.

However, the downside is, the keyboard is very small and cramped for any adult-sized pair of hands. It is difficult to impossible to touch type on it, unless you have very small hands.

Also, because the XO is meant to be for children in DEVELOPING countries, it is difficult to impossible to buy one if you are in a rich country. (I bought mine through a very short-term program in which OLPC allowed people in rich countries to buy two XO lap tops — one of which they receive, the other of which is sent to a developing country.)

Have you tried asking around among people with mobility impairments (or parents/family of same)? Maybe google search for relevant organizations, or browse through groups.yahoo.com or googlegroups.com for listservs devoted to relevant concerns.

As a deaf person, I find that mainstream companies don’t always do so well at addressing the concerns of consumers with disabilities. Or when they do, it’s by accident and they may fail to highlight this information in a way that’s easy for people to find. Whereas, other deaf consumers may have already researched the market and found something that might be relatively obscure to the general public but works well for them. For example, products from a smaller, independent company.

I am disabled and my husband is fighting for disability and our 18 yr. old daughter who is going to college and our 16 yr. old son who is in high school need laptops the pc that they share crashed please help me

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